Cyclamen Society Field Study: Turkey 1998

The second year of a three year study to investigate the
distribution and variation in C. alpinum (C. cilicium & C.
maritimum were also encountered) in the Antalya, Konya,
Isparta and Mugla provinces South-western Turkey
Mar-Apr 1998.

A report of the 1998 and 1999 field studies were published in the
Cyclamen Society Journal Vol. 24 No. 1, June 2000.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number follow this table.
Giving brief locational information and habitat data which
may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants South-west Turkey, 1998.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesDescription
98001T98/01TC. alpinumWhite flowers with mouth blotch.
98002T98/01TC. alpinumVery compact plant, good flower size and colour. Leaves truncate.
98003T98/01TC. alpinumLeaves and flowers large, good colour. Collected 1.5m from plant 98002T.
98004T98/01TC. alpinumWhite flowers with mouth blotch.
98005T98/01TC. alpinumWhite flowers (? mouth blotch). Collected from underneath plant 98004T.
98006T98/01TC. alpinumPetals curved over flattening flower.
98007T98/02TC. alpinum‘Flat’ flowers, good leaf pattern.
98008T98/02TC. alpinumGood leaf pattern and depth of flower colour. ‘Flat’ flowe
98009T98/02TC. alpinumDeep flower colour, ‘flat’ flower.
98010T98/02TC. alpinumGood leaf pattern.
98011T98/02TC. alpinumGood leaf pattern.
98012T98/06TC. alpinumDark olive green very small leaf.
98013T98/06TC. alpinumFlat ‘whirligig’ flowers.
98014T98/06TC. alpinumLarge wide-petalled flowers.
98015T98/07TC. alpinumLeaf Pattern 2, truncate leaf.
98016T98/07TC. alpinumLeaf longer than broad, good leaf pattern.
98017T98/08TC. alpinumLeaf pattern very bold, leaf shiny.
98018T98/08TC. alpinumLeaf shape longer than broad, good pattern.
98019T98/09TC. alpinumLeaf with silver centre.
98020T98/10TC. alpinumTiny leaf, good pattern.
98021T98/11TC. alpinumPlant with small stature. Collected at 1400m under lying snow for potential hardiness. Leaf pattern ‘not bad’.
98022T98/11TC. alpinumPlant with small stature. Collected at 1400m near lying snow for potential hardiness. Leaf pattern ‘not bad’.
98023T98/15TC. ciliciumCollected for confirmation of identity as ‘leaf looks more like C. mirabile’.
98024T98/18TC. ciliciumLeaf with dark green hastate markings, with most of rest of leaf with silver flush.
98025T98/18TC. ciliciumSimilar to 98024T, with larger hastate markings & smaller ‘silver’ area.
98026T98/18TC. ciliciumSimilar to 98024T and 98025T. Larger silver area than 98025T.
98027T98/21TC. alpinumGood leaf pattern. Flower with a shallow ‘V’ shape with fimbriate petals.
98028T98/22TC. alpinumLeaves with large green centre & silver margin.
Plant collected as population is in an outlying region for the species on the eastern side of Bey Dag.
98029T98/23TC. alpinumPlain green leaves, bright flower.
98030T98/23TC. alpinumPlain green leaves, big flower.
98031T98/23TC. alpinumCollected for dark purple flowers. No leaves at time of collection.
98032T98/23TC. alpinumVery bright flowers.

CSE Sites South-west Turkey, 1998

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.


26/03/98 Antalya province. South of Elmali on the road to Finike. Up a side road to Camkyusiu Forest.
Altitude: 1100m. Aspect: North & South slopes of shallow valley. Slope: 5º; Soil pH: 9.2; Soil Type: Terra Rossa over limestone with very high humus content in layers above tubers.
Habitat: Open slopes dotted with Quercus coccifera, Juniperus encelsa and Prunus sp. Cyclamen all growing within Q. coccifera or tucked under foot of rocks, with their tubers growing in the surface layer of Terra Rossa, overtopped by very dark humus-rich soil of nearly 100% rotting Q. coccifera leaves.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Euphorbia sp., Juniperus sp., quercus coccifera, Verbascum sp., Corydalis ?wendelboi, Gagea sp.


27/03/98 Antalya province. Avlanbeli Pass, south of Elmali on the road to Fineke.
Altitude: 1090m. Aspect: North.
Habitat: Slope dotted with Quercus coccifera, scrub and trees, and Juniperus trees. Heavy, very wet soil over limestone. Cyclamen mainly under Quercus coccifera scrub, with only a few spreading into open. Tough growing conditions with high winds and biting cold. At the time of visit, hail and snow were still lying from previous morning.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera, Juniperus sp., Gagea sp., Crocus sp., Ornithogalum sp.


27/03/98 Antalya province. Elmali to Finike Road, north of Karamanbeyli Gec.
Altitude: 450m. Shade: 100%; Aspect: West-southwest; Slope: 10-15º; Soil Type: Heavy Terra Rossa over limestone.
Habitat: Open hillside dotted with scrub. Cyclamen under bushes and in rock crevices.
Cyclamen maritinum growing with: Euphorbia rigida, Daphne gnidioides, Pinus brutia, Cotula arborescens, Poterum subspinosum, Quercus coccifera, Euphorbia characas, Crataegus sp., Biarum tenuifolium.


28/03/98 Antalya Province. On the Elmali to Kas road, south of its junction with the Elmali to Finike road, south of Akcay towards Gombe.
Altitude: 1120m. Shade: 40-90%; Aspect: West to Northwest; Slope: Near flat to 45º; Soil pH: 9.1; Soil Type: Limestone derived terra rossa clay, very wet and sticky.
Habitat: An open Juniperus forest with wide glades between. Cyclamen never in the open, only in bushes and under Juniperus, etc. Growing in and around edges of Quercus coccifera, Berberis, and Juniperus in terra rossa top-dressed with rotting leaves. Columnar outcrops of weathered limestone with sink holes and deep cracks.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Euphorbia sp., Gagea sp., Juniperus sp., plus as above, and various mosses. Several Astragalus spp. in the open glades.


28/03/98 Antalya province. On Elmali – Akcay – Kas road just south of Sinekcibeli Gec.
Altitude: 1300m. Shade: 50-60%; Aspect: South-west; Slope: 20-30º; Soil pH: 9.1; Soil Type: Limestone derived humus rich terra rossa.
Habitat: Beneath large Juniperus foetida and in limestone rock crevices. Moist at time of visit, but probably very dry later. It was noticeable that at this location Cyclamen were not growing under Quercus coccifera, but often in bare turf or amongst the roots of Juniperus.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Juniperus ?foedita, Quercus coccifera, Euphorbia sp., Euphorbia characas.


29/03/98 Antalya province. Avlan Lake, south of Elmali on the road to Finike.
Altitude: 1050m. Aspect: North to Northwest; Slope: 30-35º; Soil pH: 9.2; Soil Type: Limestone derived reddish-brown clay.
Habitat: Plants growing in deep moss, on open screes and under Juniperus/Cedrus forest, and in Berberis clumps.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Cedrus libani; Juniperus ?foedita, Prunus sp., Euphorbia sp.


29/03/98 Antalya province. Northwest of Elmali on the road to Seki, on the approach to the Gulubeli Gec.
Altitude: 1120m. Shade: 50-70%; Aspect: East and West facing slopes; Slope: 45º; Soil pH: 10.0; Soil Type: Limestone derived brown/red clay – very sticky.
Habitat: Almost solely growing in Quercus coccifera bushes. Very damp and cold at time of visit. Shaded by Quercus bushes in summer.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercis coccifera and sundry minute annuals.


29/03/98 Antalya province. Northwest of Elmali on road to Seki, southeast of the Gulubeli Gec.
Altitude: 1620m. Aspect: south-west; Slope: 30-35º; Soil pH: 9.4; Soil Type: Limestone derived sticky terra rossa clay.
Habitat: Juniperus and Berberis covered hillside with open patches of turf and degraded scrub inbetween.
Cyclamen alpinum growing under rocks and in open, mostly in the clay with a top-dressing of Juniperus needles; plants in open very tranpled by goats.


29/03/98 Antalya province. Gulubeli Gec, northwest of Elmali, on the Elmali to Seki road.
Altitude: 1550m. Shade: 50-60%; Aspect: Due East; Slope: 45º; Soil pH: 9.4; Soil Type: Limestone derived sticky terra rossa clay.
Habitat: In cracks and under large limestone outcrops, mainly growing in the clay, with little humus. Very cool conditions at time of visit, with snow lying. Stream running through site, so very humid and cold.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Juniperus sp., Berberis sp., Prunus sp.


29/03/99 Antalya province. Northwest of Elmali on the road to Seki, below Gulubeli pass, north of Yaprakli village.
Altitude: 1270m. Shade: 20-30% (more when Berberis in leaf); Aspect: Due North; Slope: 15-25º; Soil pH: 9.6; Soil Type: Limestone derived sticky terra rossa clay.
Habitat: Open hillsides with Berberis bushes and large limestone outcrops. Cyclamen mostly in Berberis bushes and at base of rocks. Very wet and cold at time of visit, with snowline just over 1000m, probably freezing at night.
Note: Villagers called Cyclamen ‘Yediyle’.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Berberis sp., Prunus sp., Gagea sp., Arum sp.


30/03/98 Antalya province. South of Elmali on the Akcay to Kas road, just south of the Karaovabeli Gec, running down to the village of Gomuce.
Altitude: 1400m. Shade: 10%; Aspect: West to Northwest; Slope: 0-30º; Soil pH: 5.6 (Juniperus chaff) and 6.9 (underlying soil); Soil Type: Limestone derived red/brown, overlaid with up to 10cm of Juniperus chaff.
Habitat: Open Cedrus libani and Juniperus excelsa forest with limestone screes and grazed turf. Cyclamen growing in Quercus coccifera bushes, open turf and less commonly in the screes. Soil had considerable content of limestone chunks.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa, Quercus coccifera, Crocus spp (pallasii group), Gagea sp., Verbascum sp.


30/03/98 Antalya province. South of Elmali on the Akcay to Kas road, about south of Kemer.
Altitude: 260m. Shade: 10-90%; Slope: 0-30º; Soil Type: A fine silt/sand derived from sandstone/mudstone.
Habitat: Open Pinus/Evergreen oak woodland. Cyclamen growing on drier slopes and dryish places beneath Pines.
Cyclamen maritinum growing with: Pinus brutia, + 2 evergreen Quercus spp.


30/03/98 Antalya province. Between Kale and Kas, east of Kas near the junction with the road north to Kemer, Akcay and Elmali.
Altitude: 550m. Shade: 0-100%; Slope: 0-5º; Soil Type: Limestone derived terra rossa.
Habitat: Cyclamen growing in bushes of Quercus coccifera and in open rocky soil between. Soil moist at time of visit, but drying out.
Cyclamen maritinum growing with: Quercus coccifera and sparse Pinus brutia.


31/03/98 Antalya province. South-southwest of Antalya on the main coast road from Antalya – Kemer- Finike, south of Kemer.
Soil Type: Limestone derived.
Habitat: Open Pinus brutia woodland. Area has limestone and serpentine outcrops.
Cyclamen maritinum notably absent from serpentine areas.


01/04/98 Antalya province. North of Serik, on the Serik to Koprulu Kanyon (07-05) road, near Kepez.
Altitude: 590m. Shade: 70-100%; Aspect: West; Slope: Irregular boulder strewn slope, average 30º; Soil pH: 6.4; Soil Type: Heavy dark reddish-brown, presumably limestone derived from crags above.
Habitat: Hillside of degraded (cleared) pine wood, secondary vegetation taken over, consisting of various shrubs and herbs. Limestone cliffs above; slopes on which Cyclamen growing consisted of conglomerate (limestone, sandstone, flint & quartz) with quartz intrusions.
Cyclamen cilicium growing with: Pinus ?brutia (largely removed), Arbutus andrachne, Cistus sp. (?salvifolius), Myrtus communis, Euphorbia characias, Quercus sp (evergreen), Quercus coccifera, Iris pamphylica, Fritillaria ?elwesii, Crocus cancellatus, Ornithogalum fimbriatum, Colchicum sp. (autumn flowering).


02/04/98 Antalya province. Just south of Akseki, on the side road to Ibradi.
Altitude: 1000m. Shade: 0-75%; Aspect: West to Northwest; Slope: 30º; Soil pH: 6.9 (in Quercus coccifera litter), 7.4 (in Terra Rossa); Soil Type: Limestone-derived terra rossa.
Habitat: Quercus coccifera and Cupressus sempervirens scattered across hillside, with open areas of bare broken limestone and patches of grazed turf. Cyclamen growing in open turf and under bushes. Soil damp at time of visit.
Cyclamen cilicium growing with: Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus communis, Pinus brutia, Hyacinthella heldreichii, Muscari anatolicum, Colchicum variegatum, 2 x Crocus sp., Biarum sp.


02/04/98 Antalya province. Just south of Akseki, on the side road to Ibradi.
Altitude: 850m. Shade: 0%; Aspect: Northeast; Slope: 20º; Soil Type: Limestone derived Terra Rossa.
Habitat: Open limestone hillside with Quercus coccifera and Crataegus with bare patches with or without turf.
Cyclamen cilicium growing with: Quercus coccifera, Pinus brutia, Juniperus sp., Crataegus sp., Daphne sericea, Daphne gnidioides, Colchicum sp.


02/04/99 Konya province. North on the Manavgat to Akseki road, south of Akseki, turn west on the 07-06 road to Aydinkent and continue north on the 42-54 road towards Gencek.
Altitude: 1400m. Shade: 10-100%; Aspect: North-east; Slope: 15-25º; Soil Type: Heavy clay-like over limestone.
Habitat: Limestone with scattered small shrubs and trees, in places closer together. Higher up, ‘scree’ with heavy soil underneath. Scattered plants in rocks and more frequently around boles of deciduous oak trees. Very moist at time of visit.
Cyclamen cilicium growing with: Quercus sp. (deciduous), Juniperus sp., Crocus chrysanthus, Scilla bifolia.


03/04/98 Isparta province. On eastern side of Lake Egirdir, to the east of Sofular. Same location as site 97/24T.
Altitude: 940m. Shade: 0-100%; Aspect: East; Slope: 20-25º; Soil pH: 6.8; Soil Type: Limestone, with little humus in rocks, but considerable quantities under bushes.
Habitat: Sloping scrub-dotted hillside with flatter areas cultivated. Cyclamen confined to bases of bushes – deciduous and evergreen. Moist heavy soil in mostly dappled shade, some denser shade.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera, Quercus sp. (deciduous), Euphorbia rigida, Muscari sp., centaurea sp., Prunus sp., Crataegus sp.


03/04/98 Isparta province. South of Lake Egirdir on road 32-26, north of Lake Kovada.
Altitude: 900m. Shade: 30-100%; Aspect: East; Slope: 15-20º; Soil pH: 6.5; Soil Type: Limestone derived.
Habitat: Scrub covered hillside, few gabs between; Cyclamen in and around bushes, never in open. Soil cool and damp at time of visit, but would be drier when shrubs in active growth.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera, Juniperus sp., Quercus sp. (deciduous), Paliurus spina-christi, Viola ?odorata, Corydalis ?wendelboi, Arum sp.


04/04/98 Mugla province. West from the Korkuteli-Fethiye road No. 350, on the road over the Dirimil Gec to Altinyayla.
Altitude: 1370m. Shade: 50-90%; Aspect: West to Southwest; Slope: 20º; Soil pH: 7.4; Soil Type: Limestone derived Terra Rossa.
Habitat: Open hillside thickly dotted with shrubs and trees; some cleared and ploughed areas. Cyclamen only in bases of thickets. Some clear areas with grasses and herbs. Soil dry on surface, damp underneath.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera; Crataegus sp., Cupressus sempervirens, Berberis ?vulgaris, Crocus sp. (Biflorus group), Ornithogalum sp.


05/04/98 Antalya province. On the Antalya to Altinyaka road No. 07-50, south of the side turning to Ovacik.
Altitude: 1120m Shade: 60-100%; Aspect: North-est; Slope: 10-20%; Soil pH: 7.1; Soil Type: Limestone breccia.
Habitat: Under rocks, boulders and outcrops in moderately dense Cedar forest in red/brown soil overlaid with a thick layer of Cedar needle debris. Needle mould dry only on surface, plenty of moisture beneath. A very sparse population, less than 10 plants seen.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Cedrus libani, Mosses, Ornithogalum sp., Muscari sp.


05/04/98 Antalya province. On road from Antalya, via Altinyaka to Kumluca, south of Altinyaka, near village of Karasar.
Altitude: 1080m. Shade: 30%; Aspect: West; Slope: 5% with vertical crevices; Soil pH: 7.0; Soil Type: Limestone derived but with much humus.
Habitat: By riverside with a few large plane trees in limestone rubble and crevices, and in scrub of Quercus coccifera & Salvia sp. Humid atmosphere, cool at time of visit; moist humus-rich soil.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Platanus orientalis, Quercus coccifera, Salvia sp., Rosa sp., Umbeliferas, Scilla pleiophylla, Gagea sp., Galanthus sp.

Acknowledgements. On behalf of the Cyclamen Society, the team wishes to thank the Turkish Embassy in London and the government authorities in Turkey for their understanding and cooperation in this project, particularly with regard to the issuing of Research Visas and CITES documents. We are especially grateful to Prof Neriman Özhatay and Başak Koçak of Istanbul University and Serna Atay and Andy Byfield of the Society for the Protection of Nature (DHKD); their invaluable help and companionship in the field were greatly appreciated. Some financial assistance was provided by the Royal Horticultural Society and the Alpine Garden Society.