Cyclamen Society Field Study: Western Turkey, 2001

A field study following on from the groundwork by Prof. Neriman Özhatay on behalf of the society in 2000.
The study covered only a very small area – a triangle of western Anatolia roughly defined by the towns of Bursa, Inegöl and Eskiehir to the north and east and Kütahya in the south. Central parts of the area are mountainous, often steep (even precipitous) and densely wooded. Access to sites away from the relatively few metalled roads, mostly running through the valleys, was not always easy. The fringes of the triangle and some valleys, however, are highly agriculturalised.
Our aims were:

  • To collect plants for introduction to horticulture and DNA analysis.
  • To achieve greater understanding of the species’ requirements in the wild and, therefore, of its requirements in cultivation.
  • To study natural variation within the species.
  • To determine, and if possible extend, the known distribution of the species.

34 plants were collected from 11 of the 25 sites surveyed.
Cylamen Coum was also encountered.

A report of the 2001 field study was published in the
Cyclamen Society Journal Vol. 26 No. 1, June 2002.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number follow this table.
Giving brief locational information and habitat data which may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants Turkey, 2001.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesDescription
01001T01/01TC. intaminatumBicolour flowers, good leaves.
01002T01/01TC. intaminatumGood foliage, white flowers.
01009T01/02TC. intaminatumBicolour flowers.
01011T01/02TC. intaminatumGood foliage.
01012T01/03TC. intaminatumWhite flowers.
01013T01/03TC. intaminatumBicolour flowers.
01014T01/09TC. intaminatumSmall white flowers, good leaves.
01014aT01/02TC. intaminatumGood flowers.
01018T01/09TC. intaminatumGood petal twist.
01022T01/09TC. intaminatumBicolour flowers.
01023T01/09TC. intaminatumGood flowers.
01026T01/09TC. intaminatumGood leaves.
01032T01/10TC. intaminatumGood flowers.
01033T01/19TC. coumGood leaves.
01034T01/19TC. coumGood leaves.
01035T01/20TC. intaminatumLeaf pattern.
01039T01/20TC. intaminatumDeep pink flowers.
01040T01/20TC. intaminatumGood leaves and flowers.
01041T01/20TC. intaminatumPlain leaves.
01042T01/20TC. intaminatumGood leaves, white flowers.
01043T01/20TC. intaminatumPlain leaves.
01044T01/20TC. intaminatumSmall flowers.
01047T01/20TC. intaminatumGood leaves, small white flowers.
01048T01/21TC. intaminatumDeep pink flowers.
01049T01/21TC. intaminatumPink flowers with white nose.
01050T01/21TC. intaminatumPink flowers with white nose.
01051T01/21TC. intaminatumPink flowers with white nose.
01057T01/21TC. intaminatumPink flowers with white nose.
01058T01/21TC. intaminatumGood leaves, white flowers.
01059T01/21TC. intaminatumGood leaves, white flowers.
01062T01/21TC. intaminatumYellowish leaf.
01063T01/21TC. intaminatumWhite flowers.
01064T01/21TC. intaminatumGood leaves.
01068T01/22TC. intaminatumSmall flowers, plain leaves.

CSE Sites in Turkey, 2001.

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.

16/10/01 Bursa province. Oylat, south of Inegöl.
Altitude: 722m, Shade: 0-90 , Aspect: North, Slope: 60%, Soil: Calcareous clay over lime- stone. pH: 7.1.
C. intaminatum principally in open patches of humic soil where limestone outcropped on a steep bank beside a footpath through scrub of mixed species including several typical calcicoles such as Acercampestre, Clematis vitalba, Daphne laureola, Ruscus aculeatus, Taxus baccata and Thelycrania sanguineum. The herbaceous flora also included calcicoles such as Euphorbia amygdaloides, Galium verum and Helleborus orientalis. Cryptograms included Bryum spp., Hypnum cupressiforme, Asplenum ? Polypodium (in shade), Dryopterissp. And saxicolous species of Caloplaca, Collema, Leptogium and Verrucaria. Several patches of C. intaminatum were closely intermingled with C. coum. These patches were in full sun, both cyclamen largely disappeared when shade reached 80% although a few etiolated relicts of C. intaminatum were found in shaded areas.

16/10/01 Bursa province. South of Inegöl, just north of Oylat.
Altitude: 700m, Shade: 0-90%, Aspect: South and over ridge to north, Slope: 45°, Soil: Red clay over limestone. pH: 6.9.
Scrubby woodland with open patches around exposed limestone boulders. Scrub primarily Juniperus oxycedrus and Quercus cerris with significant amounts of Pistacia lentiscus, but including calcicoles such as Cistus ? Salvifolius, Ruscus aculeatus, R. hypoglossum and Thelycrania sanginea.

The site comprised two separate habitats for C.intaminatum:

  1. Under Juniperus in shallow leaf litter around limestone outcrops, 50% shaded.
  2. Under Quercus in deep leaf litter with 80-90% shade.

Herbaceous plants included Clinopodium vulgare, Digitalis ferruginea, Helleborus orientalis, Origanum spp. and Teucrium chamaedrys.

16/10/01 Bursa province. South of Inegöl, just north of Oylat.
Altitude: 700m, Shade: 0% on site but shaded from south by trees and west by a cliff; Aspect: Northeast, Slope: 45°, Soil: Clay filled with limestone fragments, very shallow humus layer. pH: 7.1.
A small open area of limestone scree below a modest cliff with outcropping boulders that produced clefts in which plants were established. The area was surrounded on the south by mixed woodland tall enough to keep site cool in summer. C. intaminatum was abundant in the loose scree and also in clefts in the limestone outcrops.
Cyclamen found amidst a typical limestone flora including Asplenium ceterach and A.trichomanes. Other plants found included Allium spp. Asparagus acutifolius, Bryum spp., Dryopteris sp., Galium verum, Helleborus orientalis, Hypnum cupressiforme, Muscari spp.

18/10/01 Bilecik province. South of Bozüyük on road to Dodurga.
Altitude: 975m., Shade: 80-100%, Aspect: Northeast, Slope: 3°, Soil: Sandy clay. pH: 6.8.
An area of low (2—4m) coppiced Quercus spp. with some Juniperus and Prunus spinosa providing deep summer shade.
Deep soil in most places, >150mm. Lightly grazed by cattle and sheeps/goats except where coppice growth was dense, the intensity of grazing appeared to decrease further from the road. C. intaminatum was almost entirely below Quercus growing through deep leaf litter and declined as shade decreased and competition from grasses, herbaceous plants and grazing increased. However, where flat limestone boulders outcropped Cyclamen occurred in crevices between blocks where competition from phanerograms was limited. Very occasional plants grew in grass. Further up the slope limestone gave way to more acid rocks and Cyclamen disappeared. In coppiced areas vegetation was sparse, and was principally grasses elsewhere. Cyclamen leaves were best developed in open areas.

18/10/01 Bilecik province. South of Bozüyük on road to Dodurga and Kütahya.
Altitude: 1044m., Shade: 90-100%, Aspect: East, Slope: 45°, Soil: Clay, pH: 6.8. Low (3-4m.)
Quercus scrub with grassy sward in the few open glades. Occasional outcropping acid boulders, possibly lava or micaceous schist. C. intaminatum invariably in deep shade amidst grass. Vegetation, excluding grasses, sparse – including species of Cotoneaster, Dianthus, Eryngium, Prunus and Pyrus also Clematis vitalba and Ligustrum vulgare.
Across a small canyon and stream bed on the opposite, west facing, cliff C.intaminatum could be seen in seemingly identical conditions (except for slope & aspect).

19/10/01 Kütahya province. South of Inegöl, and a few kilometers north of Domaniç.
Altitude: 1185m., Shade: 0-100% (woodland edge to canopied woodland), Aspect: Northwest, Slope: 15°, Soil: Gritty clay over granite, pH: 6.1.
Light scrub beneath a high canopy of Fagus orientalis, deep leaf litter and humus. C. coum widespread over a large area most of which is described as site 01/19T. This site is simply the edge of the woodland area and track-side.

20/10/01 Kütahya province. South of Inegöl, and a few kilometers north of Domaniç.
Altitude: 1565m., Shade: 90-100%, Aspect: Northwest, Slope: 45°– 3°, Soil: Leafmould over clay, pH: 6.4.
Fagus orientalis woodland with continuous canopy, little herbaceous or shrub layer, 25-35mm leaf litter over humic clay. C.coum widespread and abundant with plenty of seedlings. Other plants (sparse) included Digitalis ferruginea, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Galium sp., Geumcf. urbanum, Helleborus orientalis, Lamium galeobdolon, Luzula sylvatica, Mentha sp., Milium effusum, Primula vulgaris, Prunella vulgaris, Rubia peregrina, Rubus fruticosus agg., Crocus longiflorus, Origanum sp., Pteridium aquilinum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium sp. occurred at the the edge of the woodland.
C.coum extended well down in the woodland, at least 50m lower towards the river.

20/10/01 Bursa province. Between Himilit and Oylat below a limestone cliff.
Altitude: 670m., Shade: 90% (from cliff), Aspect: North – Northwest, Slope: 55°, Soil: Clay washed down with pebbles and grit derived from limestone, with abundant humus. pH: 7.1.
The upper shaded part of the area is light woodland dominated by Fagus orientalis with occasional Tilia. The lower part, unshaded, open grassland with scrub. An area of well vegetated block scree derived from the limestone cliff above. Other plants included typical calcicoles such as Clematis vitalba, Helleborus orientalis and Ruscus aculeatus in the woodland part, Galium and Scabiosa spp., in the grassland.

C. intaminatum found in both communities and also in crevices on the limestone cliff. The cliff is the boundary of the limestone geology and on the other side of the road with soil almost entirely derived from siliceous rocks (pH 6.4), no cyclamen were found.

21/10/01 Bursa province. Southwest of Oylat, between Cayyaka and Bogazova.
Altitude: 803m., Shade: 0-50%, Aspect: Northwest, Slope: 55°, Soil: Clay, pH: 7.0.
A small patch of highly mobile landslip/scree of limestone and clay. Open parts with virtually no vegetation apart from a few shrubs desperately clinging on. Most of the very abundant C. intaminatum in the scree appeared to have fallen from above and re-established itself. Many very large tubers, often deformed suggesting they may have originated in rock crevices, and a few seedlings.

21/10/07 Bursa province. Southwest of Oylat, between Cayyaka and Bogazova.
Altitude: 853m., Shade: 100%, Aspect: Northwest, Slope: 8°, Soil: Humic red clay with leaf litter, pH: 6.9.
Mixed scrub/woodland predominantly Fagus orientalis and Quercus cerris, but with Acer campestre, Castanea sativa, Corylus maximus, Daphne sp., Fraxinus excelsior (largely seedlings), Prunus spinosus, Ruscus aculeatus and Sorbus torminalis. Sparse but very varied herbaceous flora including Achillea filipendulina, Asplenium trichomanes, A. polypodium, A. scolopendrium, Aubretia deltoides(on rocks), Crocus sp., Euphorbia amygdaloides, Fragaria vesca,Helleborus orientalis, Tanacetum parthenium and Sedum sp.
C. intaminatum widely and sparsely scattered amongst bryophytes, largely Hypnum cupressiforme, and lichens, principally Cladonia spp. and Peltigera canina.

21/10/01 Bursa province. Southwest of Oylat, between Cayyaka and Bogazova.
Altitude: 1135m., Shade: 30%, Aspect: South southeast, Slope: 22°, Soil: Fine sand, pH: 5.3.
Pinus woodland with very open canopy and little shrub or herbaceous vegetation apart from the dominant Pteridium aquilinum. C. intaminatum widespread but sparse.

Acknowledgements. We would like to thank Prof. Neriman Özhatay (University of Istanbul) for details of sites she had visited, the Embassy of the Turkish Republic in London and the Turkish Goverment for their co-operation and for issuing the necessary visas and permits.