Cyclamen Society Field Study: Turkey 1999

The final year of a three year study to investigate the distribution and
variation in C. alpinum (C. mirabile & C. hederifolium were also
encountered) in the Antalya and Mugla provinces 
South-western Turkey, Feb-Mar 1999.

A report of the 1997, 1998 and 1999 field
studies was published in the
Cyclamen Society Journal Vol. 24 No. 1, June 2000.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number follow this table.
Giving brief locational information and habitat data which
may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants Turkey, 1999.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesDescription
9900199/02TC. alpinum‘Elegans’ shaped flowers, upright pointed petals.
9900299/02TC. alpinumCurious leaf, ‘repandum’ shape, dark green and deeply scalloped at the edges.
9900399/02TC. alpinumFlowers with droopy petals, hanging down below calyx.
9900499/04TC. alpinumFlowers with drooping petals, very richly coloured.
9900599/04TC. alpinumFlowers with drooping petals, good colour and very large leaves.
9900699/04TC. alpinumFlowers with drooping petals, very pale pink – nearly white.
9900799/05TC. alpinumElegant flowers – propeller shape, large, pointed at tips in very pale pink.
9900899/06TC. alpinumGood petal colour; large leaf. Collected to observe performance in cultivation.
9900999/12TC. alpinumCollected from open scree. Leaf slightly smaller than those collected from shade. Good pattern.
9901099/12TC. alpinumLarge leaves, very good colouring/markings.
9901199/12TC. alpinumVery large leaves, particularly nicely marked with silver splashes round margin.
9901299/13TC. alpinumWeird foliaceous calyx.
9901399/13TC. alpinumRepresentative of site.
9901499/13TC. alpinumRepresentative of site.
9901599/14TC. alpinumSelected for leaf pattern, otherwise representative of site.
9901699/14TC. alpinumSelected for leaf pattern, otherwise representative of site.
9901799/16TC. alpinumRepresentative of very floriferous population.
9901899/16TC. alpinumRepresentative of very floriferous population.

CSE Sites Turkey, 1999.

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.


24/02/99 Antalya province. South-west of Antalya on the Antalya-Altinyaka road No. 07-50, turn right to Cakirlar. Site is between Cakirlar and Citdibi.
Altitude: 850m. Shade: 50%; Aspect: Southeast; Slope: 30º; Soil pH: 7.8 (Humus 7.2); Soil type: Humus rich Terra Rossa, over & under limestone scree.
Habitat: Open shade from Quercus coccifera, Pinus brutia, Juniperous sp. Moist soil at time of visit. Plants growing in a broken limestone/humus mix (humus mostly from rotting Quercus coccifera leaves). Cyclamen growing principally under Q. coccifera bushes, but scree areas quite well populated. Greatest plant density approx. 40 plants per sq. m. Population approx. 50m up slope and 100m across slope. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera, Pinus brutia, Juniperus sp., Euphorbia rigida, E. characas, Verbascum sp., Muscarimia muscari, Phlomis sp. Nerium oleander (in gullies).


25/02/99 Antalya province. West of Kumlaca on the Kale to Kas road No. 400, east of the junction with the road No. 07-52 to Elmali via Karaovabeli Gec.
Altitude: 520m. Shade: 80-90%; Aspect: Northwest; Slope: 5-10º; Soil pH: 7.7; Soil Type: Terra Rossa amid limestone outcrops.
Habitat: dense scrub/light woodland of Quercus coccifera and Q. macrolepis etc. Soil damp at time of visit. Cyclamen growing in deep humus/limestone rocks mix, in cool shade. A very humid, protected environment with mosses. A fairly uniform population in terms of large flower size and colour – a good bright mid pink-purple, no whites or even pale pinks. Very variable leaves and flower shape, from ‘typical’ propeller shape to ‘coum-like’ and ‘elegans-like’. In general, leaves at this site have an inconspicuous pattern & are rather large and dull aesthetically.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Quercus coccifera, Q. macrolepis, Smilax aspera, Daphne gnidioides, Clematis cirrhosa, Euphorbia characias, Mandragora sp., Asphodelus microcarpus, Phlomis sp., Romulea tempskyana, Gagea sp., Cyclamen graecum nearby but not in dense shade with the C. alpinum.


26/02/99 Mugla province. On the Fethiye to Korkuteli road No. 350, north of Kemer and the junction with the Fethiye to Kalkan road No. 400.
Altitude: 940m. Shade: 0-30%; Aspect: North; Slope: 0 5º; Soil pH: 7.2; Soil Type: Sticky red-brown loam, limestone derived, with humus in base of bushes.
Habitat: In a small bowl-shaped depression with a spring, creating a humid cool environment. Small clearing amid pines. Soil very moist at time of visit, with some Cyclamen leaves under water. Some plants growing against base of rocks and in crevices; others in bases of grazed shrubs. Mostly very small plants in crevices and bases of shrubs, but where there were the possibilities for better growth the plants were larger (flowers and leaves). Mainly a reflection of the extent of grazing in this area. Also, the leaves appeared to be in a very early stage of development. Population about 40m across by 40m deep. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Pinus brutia, Daphne sericea, Daphne gnidioides, grasses (forming short grazed turf), dwarf grazed deciduous shrub – possibly a Quercus sp.


27/02/99 Mugla province. On the Fethiye to Marmaris road No. 400, north of Marmaris, near the Millparklar Genel Müdurwgu Çetibel Orman Çesmesikir Gazinosu (Çetibel Forest Park).
Shade: 70%; Aspect: Flat, river-side on west side of road bank; Slope: 0º; Soil pH: 6.8; Soil Type: Good rich loam with high humus content.
Habitat: River valley, wooded, with Platanus by river and Pinus brutia on slopes. Cool humid atmosphere and plenty of moisture in soil – dappled shade. Many of the plants had curiously shaped flowers in which the petals drooped down below the level of the calyx, although they were perfectly fresh and certainly not dry at the roots. Plants have noticeably large leaves at this site. Population about 50m along river margin and about 10m wide at most.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Plantanus sp., Pinus brutia, 2 x Colchicum sp. (autumn flowering), Anenome blanda, Biarum sp., Ranunculus ficaria, Nerium oleander, Myrtis communis, Ornithogalum sp. (?collina/ montanum), Clematis cirrhosa, Smilax aspera, Romulea tempskyana, R. linaresii, Crataegus sp., Anenome coronaria, Aspodelus aestivus, Arisarum vulgare.


27/02/99 Mugla province. South of Marmaris on the Içmeler to Turunc road, approx. 1km southeast of Içmeler.
Altitude: 250m. Shade: 40-50%; Aspect: North; Slope: Near vertical banks and to about 45º; Soil pH: 6.3; Soil type: Terra Rossa with rotting mould from Erica and Cistus, volcanic/metamorphic rocks.
Habitat: In and near shrub bushes in mosses and lichens. Humid banks in boles of shrubs with moss and lichen; damp soil, quite cool in the confines of the valley compared with adjacent areas.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Pinus brutia (sparse), Juniperus sp., Hypericum sp. (ericoid), Erica manipuliflora, Cistus sp., Colchicum ?variegatum, Tulipa armena ssp.lycica, Muscari macrocarpum (nearby), Bellevalia sp. (nearby).


28/02/99 Mugla province. On Datça branch of the Marmaris Peninsula, some 20-30km from Marmaris. Same location as site 97/05T.
Altitude: 350m. Shade: 80-90%; Aspect: Northeast to Northwest; Slope: 35º; Soil pH: 7.4; Soil Type: Red-brown derived from serpentine, plus some humus from shrubs.
Habitat: Among roots of various shrubs, cool & moist at time of visit; some plants in rock crevices. Damp soil, fairly rich in humus – probably acid in view of the associated plants (Erica and Arbutus). Large-leaved population; leaf petioles with dark red-purple stalks, the colour running out on to the veins of the leaf.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Arbutus andrachne, Quercus coccifera, Phillyrea latifolia, Cistus salvifolius, Euphorbia acanthothamnus, Lilium candidum, Ruscus ?aculeatus, Juniperus sp., Hypericum empetrifolium.


28/02/99 Mugla province. On Datça branch of the Marmaris Peninsula, some 20-30km east of Datça.
Altitude: 85m. Shade: 80-100%; Aspect: Flat, on south bank of river; Slope: 0º; Soil Type: Rich silty soil, good humus content, damp, serpentine formation nearby.
Habitat: Riverside banks under Pinus brutia and Liquidamber orientalis. Humid river valley in deep rich soil; will be cool and damp for much of the year. Cyclamen with extremely large leaves, often 3-5 lobed. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen hederifolium growing with: Liquidamber orientalis, Pinus brutia, Pistaccia sp., Smilax aspera, Carob, Nerium oleander, Ranunculus ficaria, Cistus sp. (on drier parts of bank).


28/02/99 Mugla province. On Datça branch of the Marmaris Peninsula, north of Datça, west of the port of Körman Limani.
Altitude: 100m. Shade: 70-80%; Aspect: East and west banks of stream; Slope: 0-10º; Soil type: Rich loam, somewhat silty, good organic content, surrounding rocks serpentine.
Habitat: In small stream valley with dense shrubby vegetation. Moist & humid, very shady in thickets and hence much damper than surrounding country. Cyclamen with very large ‘soft’ leaves. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen hederifolium growing with: Rubus sp., Quercus sp. (deciduous), Allium neapolitanum, Ranunculus ficaria.


01/03/99 Mugla province. On Datça branch of the Marmaris Peninsula, on the road from Datça to Knidos.
Altitude: 330m. Shade: 100%; Aspect: North to west; Slope: 40º; Soil type: Limestone derived Terra Rossa, rich in humus to 100% humus.
Habitat: Cool, humid, shady very lush conditions compared with out on the dry slopes. Arbutus forming a canopy like a dense forest. Cyclamen with large leaves often strongly lobed. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen hederifolium growing with: Arbutus andrachne, A. unedo, Phlomis sp.(in drier parts), Sarcopoterium sp.(in drier parts), Phillyrea latifolia.


03/03/99 Mugla province. West of Mugla on the Yatagan to Milas road No. 330.
Altitude: 480m. Shade: 20-50%; Aspect: Open/flat; Slope: Variable & flat; Soil type: Limestone derived Terra Rossa with humus from shrubs.
Habitat: Under Quercus coccifera and between limestone rocks. Cool & moist soil, but surroundings suggest a hot & dry summer. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen mirabile growing with: Quercus coccifera, Quercus sp. (deciduous), Euphorbia rigida, Oinus brutia, Olives.


05/03/99 Mugla province. On the Mugla to Yatagan road No. 550, up a side turning to the northeast of the main road.
Altitude: 700m. Shade: 90%; Aspect: South to West; Slope: 20º; Soil type: Limestone derived Terra Rossa with humus.
Habitat: In bases of shrubs (mainly Quercus coccifera) with cover of young pines. Rather dry scrub but soil moist underneath at time of visit. Small population not more than 30m across. Flowers variable in colour from pink to near white, but all very pale. (Site surveyed – no plants collected).
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Crocus fleischeri, Crocus cancellatus, Quercus coccifera, Pinus brutia, Euphorbia rigida, Phlomis sp., Daphne gnidioides, Sternbergia fischeriana, Muscarimia sp. aff. muscarimi.


06/03/99 Mugla province. South of Fethiye to Mugla road No.400, on the side turning to Dalyan and Iztuzu Beach.
Altitude: 10m. Shade: 70-100%; Aspect: Northeast; Slope: 35º; Soil type: Limestone derived, but very little soil, mostly crushed limestone & humus.
Habitat: Foot of vertical north-facing limestone cliffs in cool scree among bushes and few trees and shrubs. Cool and moist conditions, just above level of river. Mostly in scree with leaf-mould, not on cliffs. Plants in sun would be shaded by dense growth of ‘Alexanders’ later in summer. In general, plants had very strongly scented flowers from this locality, but a few unscented although apparently quite fresh and similar to the others.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: ‘Alexanders’, Paliurus spina-christi, Smilax aspera, Salvia sp., Ruscus aculeatus, Carob, Mercurialis perennis, Arisarum vulgare, Quercus sp.(evergreen), Clematis cirrhosa, Ranunculus sp. (very large flowered), Daphne gnidioides.


06/03/99 Mugla province. West of Fethiye, on the Fethiye to Dalaman road No. 400, turning north in the town of Kargi; near Çeriger.
Altitude: 100m. Aspect: North; Slope: 45º; Soil type: Limestone derived brown loam with humus.
Habitat: Open pine woods on steep slopes with cliffs and scree. Open area which would never receive sunlight although not shaded. Soil damp, whole atmosphere cool and humid. Growing on cliffs in moss, in scree at foot of cliffs and in pine woods (but thinning out in pines). Large population at least 0.5km wide. At most dense point, 25 plants per sq. m. Very variable flower colour.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Pinus brutia, 2 x Quercus sp. (evergreen), Salvia sp., Daphne gnidioides, Phillyrea latifolia


07/03/99 Mugla province. North of Fethiye, on the Günlukbasi to Üzümlü road No. 48-27, near Üzümlü.
Altitude: 450m. Shade: 0-100%; Aspect: All aspects; Slope: 0-10º; Soil type: Limestone derived, top 5cm very humus rich with mainly Quercus coccifera mould.
Habitat: Mainly in boles of shrubs, but also in rocky knolls and rarely out in the open turf nearby. General area is a shallow bowl in hillside at base of small dry pine-clad hill. Quite moist at time of visit, and many other plants coming into growth suggesting never very dry. Plants in sunny positions wilting badly, but most will be shaded by shrubs or other herbs later on. Very varied in choice of habitat – from full sun to dappled shade of decidupus shrubs to dense shade of evergreen oaks. Very large viable population, in some places up to 30 plants per sq. m.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Paliurus spina-christi, Anenome coronaria, Quercus coccifera, Anagyris foetida, Olives, Pinus brutia, Smilax aspera, Clematis cirrhosa, Mandragora officianalis, Ruscus aculeatus, Cistus sp.,


07/03/99 Mugla province. North of Fethiye, on a side turning north off the Fethiye-Mugla road No. 400, towards Uzumlu, Incirköy and Arpacik. North of Incirköy.
Altitude: 1050m. Shade: 0-100% (100% when deciduous trees in full leaf); Aspect: North; Slope: 10º; Soil type: Limestone derived with humus in surface.
Habitat: In boles of trees & shrubs, north sides of rocks and in open turf & scree. Cool atmosphere with moist soil at time of visit. Cyclamen very variable in leaf size, from small (in the open) to large (when in shade).
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Pinus brutia, Quercus sp. ?macrolepis, Quercus coccifera, Crocus biflorus ssp. isauricus, Daphne gnidioides, Anenome blanda, Scilla bifolia.


07/03/99 Mugla province. North of Fethiye, turning off the Fethiye to Mugla Road No. 400, towards Uzumlu, Incirkoy and Arpacik, near Arpacik.
Altitude: 1220m. Shade: 0-100% (open scree to completely shaded in summer when deciduous bushes in growth); Aspect: southwest; Slope: 0-10º; Soil type: Limestone derived with much humus, a lot of it from pine bark chips.
Habitat: In open scree and in boles of deciduous bushes. The hillside has been clear-felled & replanted (some terracing). Cool atmosphere in spite of being in full sun. Soil quite damp at time of visit. Plants probably diminutive because of lack of shade after forest clearance. This population is particularly floriferous, one fine specimen had 54 flowers, and many more plants had at least 20 open at once. Up to 20 plants per sq.m. at the densest.
Cyclamen alpinum growing with: Pinus brutia, Daphne gnidioides, Iris unguicularis, Euphorbia rigida, Quercus sp. (deciduous), Verbascum sp., Astragalus sp. (spiny cushion type), Asparagus sp. Plants also seen nearby, near Kizilbel, north of Uzumli, at 850m.

Acknowledgements. On behalf of the Cyclamen Society, the team wishes to thank the Turkish Embassy in London and the government authorities in Turkey for their understanding and cooperation in this project, particularly with regard to the issuing of Research Visas and CITES documents. We are especially grateful to Prof Neriman Özhatay and Başak Koçak of Istanbul University and Serna Atay and Andy Byfield of the Society for the Protection of Nature (DHKD); their invaluable help and companionship in the field were greatly appreciated. Some financial assistance was provided by the Royal Horticultural Society and the Alpine Garden Society.