Cyclamen Society Field Study: Southern Turkey, 2002

With very few published observations of Cyclamen pseudibericum in the wild
since the Albury, Cheese and Watson Expedition of 1966.
The Cyclamen Society decided to run a field study to Southern
Turkey in March 2002, its main purpose was to further
increase the knowledge of Cpseudibericum in the wild.

With the advance of modern scientific methods, it also gave
the society the opportunity to collect specimen plants
from which they could supply material for DNA
and other molecular analysis.

Six sites were surveyed and 14 plants collected.

A report of the 2002 field study was published in the 
Cyclamen Society Journal Vol. 26 No. 2, December 2002.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number
follow this table. Giving brief locational information
and habitat data which may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants Turkey, 2002.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesDescription
02001T02/01TC. pseudibericumBold leaf pattern. Silver flecking in green border of leaf.
02002T02/01TC. pseudibericumVery long basal mark to flower. Attractive leaf pattern.
02003T02/01TC. pseudibericumStriking flower colour, visibly out-standing. Heavily silvered leaves. Roots around circumferance of tuber, none underneath.
02004T02/03TC. pseudibericumAbove basal blotch on petals, distinct sunray-effect veining.
02005T02/03TC. pseudibericumLong elegant flower.
02006T02/04TC. pseudibericumVery large basal blotch, hardly any white at base of petal.
02007T02/01TC. pseudibericumSilver flecked leaf. Large flower.
02008T02/01TC. pseudibericumFloriferous, large dentate leaf.
02009T02/01TC. pseudibericumFlower ‘near white’, pale basal mark.
02010T02/01TC. pseudibericumVery floriferous, flowers with long basal blotch.
02011T02/01TC. pseudibericumFlower pale lilac, dark basal blotch.
02012T02/01TC. pseudibericumFlower ‘near white’, pale basal mark.
02013T02/01TC. pseudibericumFlower cherry pink.
02014T02/01TC. pseudibericumTo eye, flower colour same as 02013T, although colour chart did not give the same result.

CSE Sites Turkey, 2002.

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.


11/03/02 Adana province. North of Adana in valley of the Seyhan Nehri on 01-20 road north of Sogtahta, southeast of Aladag.
Altitude: 240m., Shade: 0-10%, Aspect: North, Slope: 5-25°, Soil: Pure mineral fine sandstone with 1-2cm overlying organic layer in flatter areas; pH: 7.1. North facing bank. C. pseudibericum between and under open scrub to 60-80cm tall consisting of Nerium oleander, Daphne sericea, Pinus halapensis and Quercus coccifera with ground flora of Bellis perennis, Arum italicum, Anenome blanda and Viola sp.
Cyclamen tubers in mineral sand with organic layer above. Soil moist.


12/03/02 Adana province. North of Adana valley of the Seyhan Nehri a few kilometers southeast of Aladag.
Altitude: 1070m., Shade: 0%, Aspect: West and East, Slope: 20-30°, Soil: Terra rossa, pH: 7.8. Open slopes of deeply dissected limestone. C. pseudibericum growing in crevices, rarely in open or under Quercus coccifera or Laurus nobilis. Herbaceous layer of Muscari sp., Anenome blanda, Ornithogalum sp., and Alkanna tinctoria. C. pseudibericum only growing on west facing slope, and C. cilicium only growing on east facing slope. Both species effectively growing in full sun.


13/03/02 Adana province. Kozan to Feke road no. 815 some 20+km north of dam at Kozan reservoir.
Altitude: 770m., Shade: 90-100%, Aspect: West, Slope: 0-15°, Soil pH: 6.9. Rock highly metamorphosed to an irregular schist-type. Pinus halapensis woodland with occasional Quercus cerris and Platanus orientalis. Herbaceous layer of Muscari sp., Bellis perennis, Anenome blanda, Viola ?odorata, Rosa sp., Potentilla sp., Cistus ?salvifolius.

At the time of the visit the soil was still moist but in more open positions some flowers were beginning to bleach as moisture levels fall.


15/03/02 Kahraman Maras province. On road 835 between Gőksun and Kahraman Maras a few kilometers south of Gőksun near the village of Kurucaova.
Altitude: 1420m., Shade: 0-100%, Aspect: Northwest, Soil: Rich red mineral soil on limestone, pH: 7.2. Open scrub and open aspect, some C. pseudibericum growing in 100% shade when deciduous scrub comes into leaf, others in open. Cyclamen sparsely scattered under scrub, beside boulders and in stoney ground in open. At time of visit there were snow patches nearby. Scrub consisted of Pinus halapensis, Juniperus sp., a few scattered cupressus sp. and Salix albus. Herbaceous layer of Scilla bifolia, S. sibirica and Cyclamen pseudibericum.


17/03/02 Adana province. Northeast of Düziçi on road to Gümüs. 
Altitude: 1190m., Shade: see below, Aspect: North-northwest, Slope: 5-30°, Soil: Rich red, heavy soil derived from metamorphic rock, rich in iron, overlaid by a variable depth layer of leaf litter; pH: 6.8. This site is in the same area as sites 90/15 & 90/16. Ridge covered with deciduous trees 6 – 8m tall. At the time of the visit all of the tree and shrub layer was bare of leaves, but later would have provided 100% shade. Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis, Quercus cerris, Scilla sibirica, Corydalis solida, Helleborus vesicarius, Viola ?odorata., Quercus coccifera, Gagea sp., Ornithogalum sp., Cyclamen pseudibericum, C. coum.


19/03/02 Adana province. On west flank of Honaz Dagi, on 01-02 road from Kozan, northwest to Akdam and Domlük. A few kilometers southeast of Domlük.
Altitude: 860m., Shade: 0-5%, Aspect: Open, Slope: 0°, Soil: Terra Rossa, pH: 7.7. Extensive area of weathered limestone, from pillars and blocks at the top, through pavement and grikes to partly soil-filled areas. Cyclamen pseudibericum under Quercus coccifera, Salix sp. In dissolution hollows and grikes. Quercus coccifera, Salix sp., Ranunculus ficaria, Muscari sp. Flower stem only 2-3cm, flower colour purple, (very narrow white band at mouth), Arum ? italicum, Crataegus sp., Juniperus sp.

Part of site much grazed by sheep. Very extensive site with limestone ridge running several kilometers from road. Honaz Dag itself is metamorphic with very sparse vegetation of Pinus halapensis and Nerium oleander and virtually nothing else. Pinus halapensis does not cross onto the limestone.

Acknowledgements. We would like to thank Dr Prof Neriman Özhatay for her tireless efforts before, during and after our time spent in Turkey. Bob Wallis, an accomplished observer and cultivator of cyclamen who supplied invaluable information and advice. Dr Murat Ekiçi, our Turkish companion who was not only very pleasant company, but unobtrusively smoothed our path.