Cyclamen Society Field Study: Peloponnessos & Porus, 1992

The first of two studies to the Peloponnese area of southern Greece on 13 to 28 April 1992.
The purpose of the expedition was to carry out surveys of the C. rhodium populations
at various sites, and to find plants of horticultural merit to introduce into cultivation.
The expedition held permits for the introduction of collected plants to the UK.

The collected plants were to be grown for a number of years at Tile Barn Nursery
(now closed). Seed from these plants was collected and made available to the
membership via the distribution scheme in much the same way as C. coum
from previous Field Studies had been.

The two forms of C. rhodium which the team studied were:

  • C. rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum with pale pink flowers bearing a
    deeper pink nose, and hastate-patterned leaves with varying amounts
    of ‘splashing’, generally with a green reverse. This is found in the
    central and south Peloponnese, mainly in the Taigetos mountains
    and Mani peninsula.
  • C. rhodium ssp. vividum, with uniformly deep pink flowers and plainer leaves,
    generally showing a red reverse. Distribution of this form is in the Parnon
    mountains and peninsula.

A report of the 1992 field study was published in the
Cyclamen Society Journal Vol. 16 No. 2, December 1992.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number follow this table.
Giving brief locational information and habitat data which may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants in Peloponnessos & Porus, Greece 1992.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesSubspeciesDescription
9200192/01C. hederifoliumVariegated leaves.
9200292/01C. hederifolium
9200392/02C. hederifolium
9200492/03C. hederifolium
9200592/04C. hederifolium
9200692/05C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9202492/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9202592/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9205792/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9205892/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9205992/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9206092/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9206192/06C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumGood leaf.
9206292/07C. hederifolium
9206392/07C. hederifolium
9206492/07C. hederifolium
9206592/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9206692/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9206792/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9206992/07C. hederifolium
9208992/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9210692/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9211892/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9211992/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9212092/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9212192/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9212292/07C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9212392/08C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9212492/08C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9215192/10C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumSilver/grey leaf.
9215292/10C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9215392/10C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9215492/10C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9215592/10C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9220392/11C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumSilver leaf.
9220492/11C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9220592/11C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacum
9220692/11C. hederifoliumCrinkled leaf.
9220792/11C. hederifoliumSilver centre to leaf.
9225892/12C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumforma album – white flowers.
9225992/12C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumDark flowers.
9226092/12C. rhodiumpeloponnesiacumSpotted leaf.
9226192/12C. hederifoliumSilver centre to leaves.
9226292/12C. hederifoliumSmall silver zone in deep green leaf.
9231392/13C. rhodiumvividumHastate leaf pattern.
9231492/13C. rhodiumvividumTwisted flower and strong scent.
9231592/13C. rhodiumvividumPewter dentate leaf.
9231692/13C. rhodiumvividumDark flower and speckled leaf.
9231792/13C. rhodiumvividumLarge speckled leaf and large flower.
9231892/13C. rhodiumvividumSerrate leaf and wide fimbriate flower.
92318A92/13C. rhodiumvividum
92318B92/13C. rhodiumvividum
92318C92/13C. rhodiumvividum
9231992/13C. rhodiumvividumSpeckled pointed leaf.
9232092/13C. rhodiumvividumHastate speckled leaf.
9232192/13C. rhodiumvividumPaler nosed flower.
9232292/13C. rhodiumvividumSpeckled leaf.
9232392/13C. rhodiumvividumDark flower with dark plain leaf.
9232492/14C. rhodiumvividumLeaf with hastate pattern.
9237592/15C. rhodiumvividum
9237692/15C. rhodiumvividumHastate leaf pattern.
9237792/15C. rhodiumvividumFimbriate and dark flower.
9237892/16C. rhodiumvividum
9237992/19C. graecumLeaf with light central zone.

CSE Sites in Peloponnessos & Porus, Greece 1992.

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.

Poros, Saronic Islands


Road to Poseidon’s Temple above Askeli, near Tanelli.
Altitude: 100m. Aspect: Steep rocky north facing slope. Soil: brown loam over metamorphic rock, with frequent protrusions to surface.
Slope largely shrub covered with Quercus coccifera, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Genista sp. and ground flora of Cyclamen hederifolium, Cyclamen graecum, Serapias vomeracea, Ophrys lutea and Ornithogalum sp.


Poros, above Askeli, 500m above Villa Yiotevi.
Altitude: 50m. Densely wooded slope Soil: silty brown loam over metamorphic rocks and frequent protrusions.
Pinus nigra forming dense woodland with under storey of Cistus sp., Helianthemum sp and Cyclamen hederifolium


Poros, South west of Poseidon’s Temple
Altitude: 50m. Aspect: South facing wooded slope of 1:4 under Pinus nigra. Soil: A sandy loam overlayed with deep pine litter, over limestone. Shade: approximately 70%.
Understorey of Cistus creticus, Cistus salvifolius, Labiatae shrub (white flowers), with Cyclamen graecum scattered on woodland floor. Plants still in full leaf, where exposed, specimens yellowing rapidly.



West of Gallatas, Trizin, Devil’s Gorge.
Altitude: 150m Aspect: East facing slope of 1:4 on metamorphic rock. Soil: brown loam with high leafmould content approx. 13cm deep. Shade: At Cyclamen 70%.
Site wooded with Platanus orientalis, Acer campestre etc. Understorey of Nerium oleander, Phlomis fruticosa, Smilax, Geranium robertianum, Stachys, Lamium album, Hypochoeris, Cyclamen hederifolium


Argolid Peninsula, east of Gallatas, by roadside.
Altitude: 5m. Aspect: East facing sloping site of 1:2, recently burnt off. Soil: friable brown loam.
Charred tree cover of Arbutus andrachne, Quercus coccifera, Olea europaea with understorey of Wahlenbergia sp. and Cyclamen hederifolium. Cyclamen growing in sites shaded by rocks or previously by trees, and growing vigorously in now well lit areas.


Tripoli to Sparta road, War Memorial south of Tripoli.
Altitude: 820m. Stream side in sheer sided valley running away from road. Aspect: Steep northwest facing slope on mica schist. Soil: A leafmould rich loam.
Shade very deep under canopy of Betula pubescens, Platanus orientalis, Sorbus sp., Quercus sp. Understorey of Quercus coccifera, Erica arborea, and ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Viola odorata, Primula vulgaris.


Parori gorge, off road from Sparti to Mistras.
Altitude: 500m. Aspect: Gentle slope of 1:8 to 1:4, north and northwest facing. Woodland of Platanus orientalis over limestone, adjacent to streamside. Soil: a humus rich sandy loam.
Understorey of Nerium oleander, Quercus coccifera, Ruscus aculeatus etc. Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiaccum, Clematis flammula, Anenome pavonina, Saxifraga graeca.
Elsewhere in gorge: Orchis italica, Ophrys sphegodes, Ophrys lutea, Cyclamen hederifolium and Cyclamen graecum.


Sparti to Kalamata road, near Tripi.
Altitude: 575m. Aspect: Wooded north facing slope of 1:3 with site shaded 70-80%. Wood predominantly of Platanus orientalis with occasional Juglans regia and Cercis siliquastrum. Underlying rock limestone and some metamorphic intrusions. Soil: a brown loam under a thick humus layer, with loose rocks and pebbles.
Understorey of Nerium oleander, Buxux sp., Clematis flamula.Ground flora of Cyclamen hederifolium, Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Saxifraga graeca, Bellis perenis, Geranium robertianum, Anenome pavonina, Gynandiris sisyrinchium. Cyclamen graecum found higher on hill in exposed situations.


Off Sparti to Tripoli road, near Karies.
Altitude: 1100m. Aspect: North-northeast facing hillside of 1:3 slope, with limestone protrusions and loose rocks. Soil: terra rossa with a high percentage of stones.
Scrub of Quercus coccifera with ground flora of Cyclamen hederifolium, Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Anenome blanda, Hermodactylus tuberosa, Omphalodes verna, Muscari neglectum, Crocus sp, Ophrys sphegodes, Orchis quadripunctata and Orchis provincialis lower on hillside towards valley bottom.
Note: beyond site 92/08, Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum found sporadically along roadside on north facing elevations of valley continuing to 1000m altitude at last check point, where growing with Iris unguicularis, Anenome pavonina, Arum italicum, Campanula rupestris, Saxifraga graeca. At this point, site exposed with no tree cover and little soil over limestone (resembling a natural rock garden).


On road below Vamvakou, by stream.
Altitude: 1050m. Aspect: Valley running northeast with Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum growing on north face of tributary ditch and on stream banks under shade of Platanus orientalis. Soil: a sticky loam over limestone, at border of a region of sandstone and metamorphic rocks.
Sampled plants under 70% shade of Platanus orientalisand planted Juglans regia. Adjacent hillside wooded with Quercus coccifera and Abies alba, with Primula vulgaris, Iris unguicularis, Hypericum polyphylum, Anenome pavonina, Spartium junceum and Lamium album.


On road from Varvitsa near Megali Brisi.
Altitude: 1100m. Aspect: North facing steep hillside of 1:2 slope, above stream under woodland of Pinus nigra. Soil: a silty clay loam with schist rubble and gravel, over limestone and metamorphic rocks. Thick surface layer of pine debris and humus in collecting area.
Understorey of occasional Quercus coccifera, Erica arborea, Juniperus drupacea, Abies alba. Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Cyclamen hederifolium, Fragaria vesca, Anenome blanda, Iris unguicularis, Tusilago farfara.


Road above Paleopanagia.
Altitude: 1100m. Aspect: Northeast facing slope of 1:4 near streamside, under woodland. Coniderous woodland of Pinus nigra and Abies alba giving way to Platanus orientalis near stream. Shade: 60% in main study area rising to 90% in coniferous wood. Soil: a shaly brown loam with leaf litter layer over limestone and metamorphic schist or shale.
Understorey of scattered Quercus coccifera, Phlomis fruticosa and Hedera helix. Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp peloponnesiacum, Cyclamen hederifolium, Anenome blanda, Galanthus reginae-olgae, Saxifraga graeca, Omphalodes luciliae, Primula vulgaris, Hermodactylus tuberosus, Gagea sp. Doronicum sp.
Note: 92207 C. hederifolium collected above stream further along south facing slope in open with Spartium junceum, Aristolochia sp., Asplenium trichomanes. Rocks apparently metamorphic with presence of Asplenium indicating acidic soil.


On road south of Githio onto Mani Peninsula.
Altitude: 50m. Aspect: North-northwest facing slope of 1:4, wooded with Quercus sp., Acer hyrcana and Fraxinus excelsior, with understorey of Quercus coccifera, Phlomis fruticosa, Erica arborea, Pyrus sp., Rubus sp., Shade: 70%. Soil: brown loam with a dense humus and leafmould layer, over limestone.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Cyclamen hederifolium, Anenome pavonina, Wahlenbergia sp., Ophyris fusca, Barlea robertiana, Orchis italica, Asphodelus albus, Cistus creticus, Aparagus sp., A high percentage of grasses than at other recorded sites in the ground flora


Near Geraki.
Altitude: 650m. Aspect: North facing slope of 1:6 open except for occasional scrub of Quercus coccifera, Arbutus andrachne, Erinacea pungens, Thymus mastichina, Buxus sp., Soil: thin patchy terra rossa over limestone with frequent rock protrusions and loose stone on surface. Leafmould layer of around 25mm under shrubs. Shade: at most of survey plants 50% but some in full sun.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum, Cyclamen graecum, Iris unguicularis, Vinca herbacea, Anenome blanda, Ophrys lutea, Orchis quadripunctata, Orchis provincialis.
Subsequent stop at 900m where Iris unguicularis more plentiful but terrain otherwise similar. Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum found down to village on return trip on all suitable aspects.


East of Anagiri.
Altitude: 250m. Aspect: North facing slope of 2:1 or steeper with scrub to 2m of Quercus coccifera, Buxus sp., Juniperus sabina, Olea europaea, and “Pollen bush”. Shade: at Cyclamen around 80%. Soil: terra rossa over conglomerate stone. Conglomerate layer approximately 6m thick exposed from stream bed erosion, overlayed with limestone.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum, Cyclamen hederifolium, Euphorbia sp., Silene sp., Trifolium stellatum, Wahlenbergia sp.,


Near Kallithea.
Altitude: 750m. Aspect: Northeast facing slope of 1:3 with scrub of Quercus coccifera, Buxus sp., Erinacea punicea, Pyrus sp., Thymus mastichina, Cistus creticus, Phlomis fruticosus. Soil: a sandy loam (a pale terra rossa), over limestone with frequent rock protrusions and loose rocks on surface.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum, Cyclamen graecum, Polygala grandiflora Orchis simia, Euphorbia sp., Silene sp., Ophrys fusca, Ophrys lutea, Onosma sp. Helianthemum canum(?).
Beyond Kallithea, Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum frequent on north and west facing slopes under Pinus nigra woodland over limestone. Soil: a sandy loam with loose rock on surface, with leafmould layer under Pines and shrubs.


Road from Karies to Vouvara.
Altitude: 350m. Aspect: North facing slope of 1:1 running down to dry stream bed. Soil: terra rossa over limestone with loose rock at surface. Light woodland of Quercus coccifera, Betula pubescens, Crataegus monogyna, with shorter scrub of Cistus creticus and Coronilla emerus.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Iris unguicularis, Anenome blanda, Euphorbia sp., Ophrys lutea, Doronicum sp., Carex sp., Cyclamen hederifolium, Orchis quadripunctata, Astragalus sp, and Crocus sp. x 2. Colony of Cyclamen stretching towards village along hillside above road. Abies alba becoming dominant woodland species as village approached.


On road from Vouvara to Agios Petros, near Agios Petros.
Altitude: 1050m. Aspect: West facing slope of 1:3 under woodland of Castanea sativa. Soil: a shaly sandy loam over limestone with loose rock on surface and leafmould layer under trees and shrubs. Woody species included Rubus sp., Hedera helix, Rosa sp., Clematis flammula, with deciduous mistletoe on trees.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. peloponnesiacum, Cyclamen hederifolium. Cyclamen tending towards darker flower colour.


Near Agios Petros on Astros road.
Altitude: 900m. Aspect:East and northeast facing slope of low scrub to 1.5m of Quercus coccifera and Juniperus drupacea. Soil: a very shaly sandy loam over limestone with frequent rock protrusions and loose surface rock.
Ground flora of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum, Euphorbia sp., Iris unguicularis, Orchis quadripunctata, Cyclamen hederifolium, Orchis provincialis, with low scrub of Erinacea pungens, Phlomis fruticosa and Thymus mastichina. Shade: at Cyclamen around 70%. Some plants of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum found with lighter flower colour. Juniperus drupacea thickens to dominant vegetation as monastery approached. No longer paler flowered specimens of Cyclamen rhodium ssp. vividum found. Cyclamen growing in similar conditions but with Hermodactylus tuberosus, Muscari.