Cyclamen Society Field Studies: Northern Turkey 1987 & 1988

The first two field studies undertaken by the Cyclamen Society in 1987 & 1988, both took place
in Northern Turkey from Istanbul to the border with Georgia. 206 plants were collected spread
across Cyclamen coum and Cyclamen parviflorum.
The numbering system used for these plants, and indeed all plants which were subject
to survey was to append a sequence number of each plant examined to the site
number. It was quickly found that with no reference to the year of collection,
confusion arose. For example plant S10/N52 was C. coum collected in 1987,
whilst plant S10/N293 was C. coum collected in 1988 at a completely
different location.

To remedy the problem a new system was adopted with the plant number prefixed
by the year number. Thus plant 90352 was the 352nd plant examined during the
1990 field study to Israel. If the year of collection is known, there can be no
confusion regarding the location from which the plant was collected.

In order to reconcile the two systems of numbering, and to clearly identify the year
and site of collection, the numbering of those plants collected in 1987 & 1988 was revised
to incorporate the year. This revised numbering system is used in the tables below, with the
collection site number displayed in the adjacent column.

Reports of the 1987 & 1988 field studies were published in the
Cyclamen Society Journals Vol. 11 No. 2, December 1987 and Vol. 12 No. 2, December 1988.

Abridged field notes referenced by site number follow this table.
Giving brief locational information and habitat data which may aid cultivation.

CSE Plants Northern Turkey, 1987.

If plant images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple CSE plant number.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesCSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesCSE Plant No.Site No.Species
87007A87/01C. coum87082H87/12AC. coum8724287/24C. coum
87007B87/01C. coum87082I87/12AC. coum8724387/24C. coum
87007C87/01C. coum87082J87/12AC. coum8725187/24C. coum
87007D87/01C. coum87082K87/12AC. coum8725387/25C. coum
8702287/07C. coum8709487/12C. coum8727287/25C. coum
87022A87/07C. coum8714887/15C. coum8727387/25C. coum
8703087/09C. coum8714987/15C. coum8728987/28C. coum
8705287/10C. coum8715087/15C. coum87290A87/28C. coum
87054A87/10C. coum8715187/15C. coum87290B87/28C. coum
87054B87/10C. coum87172A87/14C. coum8729187/28C. coum
8705587/11C. coum87172B87/14C. coum8729587/28C. coum
8705687/11C. coum8717387/14C. coum8731387/29C. coum
8706087/11C. coum8717487/14C. coum8731487/29C. coum
8706787/11C. coum8717587/19AC. coum8731587/29C. coum
87082C87/12AC. coum8720387/22C. coum8732487/31C. coum
87082D87/12AC. coum8720487/22C. coum8732587/31C. coum
87082E87/12AC. coum8720687/23C. coum8732687/31C. coum
87082F87/12AC. coum8720787/23C. coum8734787/33C. coum
87082G87/12AC. coum8720887/23C. coum

CSE Plants Northern Turkey, 1988.

CSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesCSE Plant No.Site No.SpeciesCSE Plant No.Site No.Species
88020A88/03C. coum8830388/12AC. parviflorum8840788/21C. coum
88020B88/03C. coum8830488/12AC. parviflorum8845888/22C. coum
88020C88/03C. parviflorum8830588/13C. parviflorum8845988/22C. coum
88020D88/03C. parviflorum8830688/13C. parviflorum8846088/22C. coum
88020E88/03C. parviflorum8830788/13C. parviflorum8846188/22C. coum
88020F88/03C. parviflorum8830888/13C. parviflorum8846288/22C. coum
88020G88/03C. coum8830988/13C. parviflorum8846388/22C. coum
8805188/04C. coum8831088/13C. parviflorum8846488/22C. coum
8805288/04C. coum8831188/13C. parviflorum8846588/22C. coum
8810388/05C. coum8831288/13C. parviflorum8846688/22C. coum
8810488/05C. coum8831388/13C. parviflorum8846788/22C. coum
8810588/05C. coum8831488/13C. parviflorum8846888/22C. coum
8810688/05C. coum8831588/13C. parviflorum8846988/22C. coum
8810788/05C. coum8831688/13C. parviflorum88519A88/23C. coum
8810888/05C. coum8831788/13C. parviflorum8857088/24C. coum
8810988/05C. coum8831888/13C. parviflorum8857188/24C. coum
8811088/05C. coum8831988/13C. parviflorum8857288/24C. coum
8811188/05C. coum8832088/14C. parviflorum8857388/25C. parviflorum
8811288/05C. coum8832188/14C. parviflorum8857488/25C. parviflorum
8811388/06C. coum8832288/14C. parviflorum8857588/25C. parviflorum
8811488/06C. coum8832388/14C. parviflorum8857688/25C. parviflorum
8821688/08C. coum8832488/14C. parviflorum8857788/25C. parviflorum
8821788/08C. coum8832588/14C. parviflorum8857888/25C. parviflorum
8821888/08C. coum8832688/14C. parviflorum8857988/25C. parviflorum
8821988/08C. coum8832788/03C. parviflorum8858088/25C. parviflorum
8827088/09C. coum8832888/03C. parviflorum8858188/25C. parviflorum
8827188/09C. coum8832988/03C. parviflorum8858288/25C. parviflorum
8827288/09C. coum8833088/03C. parviflorum8858388/27C. coum
8827388/09C. coum8833188/03C. parviflorum8858688/26C. coum
8827488/09C. coum8833288/03C. parviflorum8863788/04C. coum
8827588/09C. coum8833388/13C. coum8863888/04C. coum
8827688/09C. coum8833488/13C. coum8863988/04C. coum
8827788/09C. coum8833588/13C. coum8864088/04C. coum
8827888/09C. coum8833988/16C. parviflorum8864188/04C. coum
8827988/09C. coum8834088/16C. parviflorum8864288/04C. coum
8828088/09C. coum8834188/16C. parviflorum8864388/04C. coum
8828188/09C. coum8834288/16C. parviflorum8864488/04C. coum
8828288/09C. coum8834388/16C. parviflorum8864588/04C. coum
8828388/09C. coum8834488/16C. parviflorum8864688/04C. coum
8828488/09C. coum8834588/16C. parviflorum8864788/26C. coum
8828588/09C. coum8839688/21C. coum8864888/26C. coum
8828688/09C. coum8839788/21C. coum8864988/26C. coum
8829288/10C. coum8839888/21C. coum8865088/26C. coum
8829388/10C. coum8839988/21C. coum8865188/26C. coum
8829688/12C. parviflorum8840088/21C. coum8865288/26C. coum
8829788/12C. parviflorum8840188/21C. coum8865388/26C. coum
8829888/12C. parviflorum8840288/21C. coum8865488/26C. coum
8829988/12C. parviflorum8840388/21C. coum8865588/26C. coum
8830088/12C. parviflorum8840488/21C. coum8865688/26C. coum
8830188/12C. parviflorum8840588/21C. coum
8830288/12C. parviflorum8840688/21C. coum

CSE Sites Northern Turkey, 1987

If site images are available they may be viewed by clicking on the purple site number.


Between Adapazari and Pamukova.
Altitude: 75m. A wooded slope and gully with Pinus, Fagus, Juglans and Quercus. Complete shade in summer over most of the site. Aspect: East. Slope: 1:1.5. Soil: A very stony brown earth with fine mineral particles.
C. coum growing from road, through broad-leaved trees and into first 3-4 metres of Pinus.


Between Bolu and Abant.
Corylus and Salix woodland/scrub composed largely of Pyracantha and Rubus. Aspect: Southeast; Slope: 1:3; Soil: A waterlogged calcareous clay with leaf litter. Lichen flora.
C. coum growing in crevices of tree roots etc., where drainage was improved. Abundant Primula sibthorpii otherwise sparse herbaceous flora due to leaf litter.


Between Eregli and Heraklea.
Altitude: 60m. Hedgebank below a ploughed field with Quercus, Hedera, Thelycrania sanguinea, Rubus, Ligustrum vulgare, Fagus orientalis, Clematis vitalba, and Ruscus. Aspect: Northeast, slope varying from flat to 1:0.5. Soil: A calcareous clay, well drained but wet. 
C. coum always in hedge bottom, often amongst Hedera and dead leaves. Many large leaved plants with leaves up to 65mm x 65mm.


Between Eregli and Devrek.
Open woodland, largely of Quercus with little in the shrub layer. Aspect: Southwest, Slope: 1:5.
C. coum widely and evenly distributed, with 40% cover over the whole wood. Abundant Scilla bifolia, Helleborus orientalis, Primula sibthorpii and Euphorbia.


About 200m towards Devrek from site 87/04.
Scrub, largely of Quercus, some coppiced. Aspect: Southwest, Slope: 1:4.
C. coum abundant at base of scrub.


Between Corum and Merzifon.
Altitude: 915m. Hills covered with melting but deep snow with boulders and Quercus scrub. Aspect: Southeast and northwest. Slope: 1:3. Soil: A ferruginous clay.
C. coum scattered in protected situations in leaf litter below scrub, in crevices between or at the base of boulders.


Between Havza and Samsun.
Altitude: 870m. Open scrub of Quercus cerris and Fagus orientalis amidst short intensively grazed grass. Some glades where scrub cover provided a 90% canopy. Aspect: South-southeast. Slope: 1:7. Soil: A wet, slightly gritty clay with very few stones. Leaf litter and coarse humus to a depth of 2-3cm.


East of Samsun on the coast road.
Altitude: 3-15m. Mixed scrub, including Rubus, Smilax, Fagus, Corylus, Ruscus and a few patches of Ligustrum vulgare, with grassy patches. Aspect: North, Slope: 1:1 (a steep cliff above the road hugging the beach), Soil: Patches of wet clay (water oozing from cliff) over a calcareous conglomerate.
C. coum in grassy areas amongst Digitalis, Lamium, Viola, Verbascum, Arum, Cardamine, Origanum, Bellis, Euphorbia, Erodium, Galium, Geranium, Trifolium, Veronica, Helleborus, Silybium marianum and Brunnera.


Road between Unye and Niksar.
Altitude: 90m. A narrow valley in a hazel orchard with a few pear and poplar standards and a number of large isolated boulders. Aspect: East. Slope: 1:3 with level areas. Soil: A well drained humic loam.
Abundant C. coum especially but not exclusively within the hazel stools, occasionally amongst mosses etc., on boulders. Extensive shrub and herb layers.


Between Fatsa and Ordu.
Altitude: 30m. A vertical bank below hazel orchard with epilithic and pendant herbs and bryophytes. Aspect: Northwest. Slope: Vertical or overhanging. Soil: (where present) Coarse humus over acid rock.
C. coum growing in mosses on the rock face.


Between Ordu and Ulubey.
Altitude: 1600ft. Fagus orientalis woodland with a dense understory. Aspect: Northeast. Slope: 1:1. Soil: Sticky, calcareous clay.
C. coum scattered amongst a diverse shrub layer.


Between Ordu and Ulubey.
Altitude: 490m. Hazel grove with a few standard trees. Aspect: Southwest. Slope: 1:15. Soil: Fine, wet clay.
Abundant C. coum within the circular coppiced hazel bushes.


A steep cultivated bank immediately below site 87/12 containing the remains of maize and beet crops with occasional hazel bushes. Slope: 1:1.


Sumela Gorge above the Meryemana Car Park.
Altitude: 1100 – 1250m. Mixed woodland dominated by Fagus orientalis and Picea orientalis with a closed canopy. Aspect basically west, but variable. Slope: 1:1, but variable, many plants located on vertical walls. Surface soil a deep layer of mixed leaf mould.
C. parviflorum growing on east side of gorge in deep leaf litter and on the vertical faces of dry walls. Companion plants extremely varied.


Sumela Gorge.
Altitude: 1100-1280m. Mixed woodland with scattered specimens of Acer cappadocica, Tilia rubra, Mespilus germanica and Juglans regia. Aspect: East-southeast. Slope: 1:1. Soil: A stony clay with thick humus layer.
C. parviflorum abundant to an altitude of around 3750ft, above which at some 4050ft it was replaced by C. coum.


Part of site 87/14A, at the lower end of the site, selected as a place where C. coum and C. parviflorum grew within 1 metre of each other, without any evidence of hybridisation.


Between Maçka and Sumela.
Altitude: 425m. Scrub, largely composed of Fagus orientalis, Corylus, Thelycrania, Ligustrum vulgare, Acer, Pyracantha, Quercus, Rubus, Smilax, Rosaand Ruscus. Aspect: West. Slope: 1:3. Soil: A gritty clay.


Between Maçka and Sumela.
Altitude: 490m. At the foot of a cliff in a scree facing east.
Scattered C. coum amongst grasses and sedges with Geranium robertianum, Sedum, Verbascum, Viola, Campanula, Galium, Primula vulgaris, Polpodium vulgare,and sundry bryophytes.


Between Maçka and Sumela.
Altitude: 915m. Scrub, principally of Rhododendron luteum. Aspect: West, slope varied.
Abundant C. parviflorum with Oxalis acetosella, Galanthus rhizensis, Scilla ?sibirica and Anenome blanda. Cyclamen growing between crevices of moss covered boulders.


Between Maçka and Sumela, on river bank.


Between Maçka and Sumela, on river bank.


Between Macka and Sumela. Altitude: Probably about 825m. Alluvial gravel on inside of river bend.


Between Maçka and Sumela, on river bank.


Between Çayeli and Pazar on the coast road.
Altitude: 0-30m. Dense vegetation of vascular plants. Aspect: North-northwest, Slope: 1:1 and steeper.
Occasional tubers of C. coum, very probably washed downhill, established amongst grasses and Luzula below Rubus, Populus and Alnus.


Between Ardesen and Camlihemsin.
Altitude: 75m. A small valley to the west of the valley and road, bottomed by a stream flowing through poplar groves. Aspect: East, but open to full sun from the west. Slope: 1:50. Soil: Clay loam with large stones, possibly downwash now stabilised by poplar roots.
C. coum on stream bank and higher on valley sides.


Between Arhavi and Ortacalar.
Altitude: 60m. Poplar and hazel woodland. Aspect: East. Slope: 1:1. Soil: Leafmould.
A dense mass of C. coum with abundant seedlings. Some of the largest leaves were recorded at this site.


Near Damar.
Altitude: 975m. Low, open Rhododendron ponticum scrub. Aspect: West to Northwest. Slope: Variable but 1:2 overall. Soil: Thin acid hums layer over varied rock.
Scattered plants of C. coum in short grass and scree-like patches Many plants with especially dark flowers.


Between Pazar and Cayeli on coast road.
Altitude: 3m. Small moss-clad rock face dripping with water from fields above. Aspect: Northeast. Slope: Vertical. Soil: Only in a few crevices.
C. coum growing in crevices, on mats of root, and epiphytically on mats of moss.


On the road from Rize to Guyneçe, Ikizdere and Ispir, beyond Ikizdere.
Altitude: 97m. Open valley with grantitic outcrops, bordered by woodland. Aspect and slope variable.
Scattered clups of C. coum, usually in crevices between rocks at the base of outcrops amongst grasses, ferns, and lichens.
Growing with: Primula sibthorpii, Potentilla sterilis, Lobaria pulmonaria, Peltigera horizontalis, Peltigera praetextata, Cladonia chlorophaea, Collema auriculatum, Lepraria incana, Polypodium vulgare and Asplenium trichomanes.


Above Ikizdere.
Altitude: 1310m. Steep river gorge with level areas, sparsely wooded with Picea orientalis and some Corylus; with Alnus along the river.
Cyclamen on level or gently sloping ground of variable aspect, open. Both C. coum and C. parviflorum present, growing intermixed along a boundary, but largely separate.


Some distance inland from Black Sea coast from Tirebolu.
Hazel grove near a village. Aspect: East. Slope: Approximately 1:30. Soil: A dark leaf mould between boulders and stones.


Between Tirebolu and Dogankent.
Altitude: 21m. Hazel grove with east and north aspect. Slope: 1:1. Soil: A stony clay.


Between Pinarlar and Sariyakup on the Giresun to Sebinkarahisar road.
Altitude: 975m. ‘Alpine meadow’ type area amidst scattered trees. Showed signs of recently melted snow, with all Cyclamen pressed firmly to the ground. Aspect: North-east overall, Slope: 1:1. Soil: A clayey loam over granitic rocks.
C. coum scattered especially in glades in which Alnus had recently been felled. Seedlings occurred widely but sparsely. The whole area was heavily grazed.


Between Giresun and Sebinkarahisar.
Altitude: 1020m.


Between Ünye and Samsun.
Altitude: 6m. Hazel grove with standard apples. Aspect: North, Slope: 1:10.
C. coum sparse both within the hazel stools and between. A grazed area with few other plants other than grasses, but both Helleborus orientalis and Primula sibthorpii were noted.


Between Ladik and Tasova.
Altitude: 685m. Low scrub on alluvial deposits by river. Aspect: East, but negligible slope. Soil: A very stony clay incorporating bands of sand and gravel, covered by coarse humus and leaf litter.


Between Tasova and Amasya, near Akdag.
C. coum present but scarce on stony clay amongst scrub on a south facing bank.


Between Tasova and Amasya.
A few tubers of C. coum noted at the base of a steep limestone cliff amongst Ruscus, Arabis, Draba aizoides, Acantholimon and Euphorbia cf. rigida.


Between Tosya and Kastamonou.
Altitude: 1150m. Dense scrub of Fagus orientalis. Aspect: East, Slope: 1:3.
C. coum abundant below scrub of and clearly regenerating satisfactorily. Plain leaved forms common higher on slopes.
Other plants noted included Ligustrum vulgare, Daphne, Thelycrania sanguinea, Rubus, Pyracantha, Rhododendron ponticum, primula vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata, Hieracium, Glechoma hederacea, Scilla, Viola, Lepraria incana, Peltigera horizontalis and sundry bryophytes.


On the road from Kastamonou to Karabük and Safranbolu.
Altitude: 1125m. Scrub dominated by Fagus orientalis. Gentle West facing slope on a wet gritty soil.
C. coum almost entirely confined to areas below scrub composed of Fagus orientalis, Crataegus, Pyracantha, Quercus, Cornus mas, Daphne, Rosa, Ligustrum vulgare, Malus communis, Pinus and Juniperusprobably due to grazing pressure which appeared to be intense. Abundant seedlings both within and outside scrub patches.


Between Gerede and Bolu, to the west of Yeniçaga.
Altitude: 930m. Hazel grove with occasional Quercus, Cornus mas and Picea higher on the slope. Aspect: Northwest, Slope: 1:1.
C. coum in thick leaf litter with sparse vegetation including Scilla bifolia, Ornithogalum, Primula vulgaris, Peltigera canina, Urtica dioica and Helleborus orientalis. Both petal and leaf shapes very variable, pointed to orbicular leaves and pointed to rounded petals. Strong populations with excellent natural regeneration.


Near Abant Lake, to the northwest.
Edge of mixed woodland with Fagus, Crataegus and Pinus, and within open Fagus orientalis woodland. Aspect: Southeast; Slope: 1:3. Soil: A damp clay with abundant leaf litter.
C. coum most often in drier parts but ocassionally found in damper situations.


North of Abant Lake on the road to Bolu.
Altitude: 1150m. Dry woodland floor below Pinus and Abies. Aspect: East, but deeply shaded. Slope: 1:4. Soil: A gritty clay with abundant humus in the first 2-3cm.
C. coum widely distributed but seldom achieving more than 10% ground cover.


North of Abant Lake on the road to Bolu.
Altitude: 1000m. Woodland dominated by Fagus orientalis. Aspect: South-southeast, Slope: 1:2, Soil: A gritty clay.
Mature plants and seedlings of C. coum widely scattered.


Near Isakoy, east of Sile.
Altitude: 60m. Large area of level, stony scrub. One plant of C. coum noted.


Near Isakoy, east of Sile.
Altitude: 110m. Recently cleared scrub of mixed Laurus nobilis, Fagus orientalis, Buxus, Daphne, Quercus, Juniperus and Arbutus. Flat site. Soil: A ferruginous clay over hard limestone.
C. coum occurring over a small area both in the soil and in rock crevices.


West of Sile on the Istanbul road.
Altitude: 45m. A small wooded valley running east – west with a stream in the base. Aspect: North facing slope of 1:1.5 Soil: leaf mould over fine clay.
The population of C. coum starts in the bottom at about 60cm above the apparent winter flood level, dying out some 10m above the stream. Rich herbaceous and woody plant flora.


Kiraslibend, Belgrad Forest, Istanbul.
Altitude: 45m. Dense woodland of tall, slim Fagus and Quercus along a small valley. Aspect: Northeast; Slope: 1:1.5. Soil: A stony clay under humus.
A scattered, patchy population of C. coum amongst scrub and herbaceous vegetation.

CSE Sites Northern Turkey, 1988


Near Sumela, Trabzon.
Altitude: 1350m. A clearing and adjacent Picea orientalis woodland both with large boulders. Aspect: South-southeast. Slope: 1:2. Woodland soil: Clay loam under needle litter. Clearing soil: Clay with a humus layer.
Cyclamen tubers growing at ‘junction’ between clay & humus layer. C. coum growing at the base of boulders and in the woodland. C. parviflorum growing closely intermixed with C. coum in woodland.


Near Macka, on road between Trabzon and the Zigana Pass.
Altitude: 760m. A scrub covered slope, marked by gully erosion. Aspect: West to Southwest. Slope: 1:1. Soil: A fine clay with gritty facies and scattered large stones.


Southwest of Ordu.
Altitude: 1200m. Fagus orientalis woodland with Rhododendron ponticum scrub, above a cultivated hazel orchard. Aspect: Southeast. Slope: 1:2. Soil in woodland: A stony, gritty clay with deep leaf litter. Soil in Hazel Orchard: Gritty clay.


Between Ulubey and Golkoy.
Altitude: 550m.


South of Unye.
Altitude: 550m. Woodland of pollarded Fagus orientalis. Aspect: North. Slope: 1:3. Soil: A fine sand below 20-30cm of decomposing leaf litter.
Cyclamen tubers at ‘junction’ of sand and leaf litter.


Between Fatsa and Ordu, near Yalikoy.
Altitude: 40m. Hazel orchard. Aspect: Northeast. Slope: 1:1. Moist soil and shelter provided by a varied shrub layer supported an equally varied herbaceous layer including several ferns.
C. coum growing mostly on vertical rock faces with a northeast aspect growing usually in humus accumulated amongst rhizomes of Polypodium vulgare or stems of Hedera or Rubus. The tubers appeared to be rooted entirely in the surface humus without penetrating into the crevices of the rock. Others were growing amongst the herbs.


South of coast road from Ordu to Giresun.
Altitude: 150m. Hazel orchard. Aspect: West. Slope: 1:2. Soil: A stony clay over siliceous rocks.


Between Macka & Sumela.
Altitude: 800m. Choke on the bank of the river. Aspect: Level or gently sloping to west. Slope: Maximum 1:4. Soil: A gritty alluvial deposit. C. coum & C. parviflorum in isolated & distinct patches.


Near Sumela.


Between Macka & Sumela.
Altitude: 770m. In shade below Alnus, Fagus and Picea, about one metre above the river. Aspect: West. but facing steep cliffs making the site deeply shaded. Slope: 1:4.
C. coum and C. parviflorum grew in separate patches in pockets of gritty leafmould on boulders and rock faces, and in patches of deeper soil.


Between Macka & Sumela.
Altitude: 750m Choke on river bank. Abundant C. parviflorum below Alnus.


On road south from Arakli.
Altitude: 1000m. Gently sloping stony area with outcropping boulders beside river bed, scattered Fagus orientalis, Picea orientalis and along the river, Alnus. Largely snow covered. Aspect: North. Slope: 1:15. Soil: 3-6cm humic silt, 3-5cm red silt over compacted stones.
C. parviflorum sparsely scattered, most abundant at the east facing base of boulders. Also growing in humus filled crevices of boulders up to 130cm above ground level.


Near Artvin.
Altitude: 800m. Steeply sloping wood pasture below Fagus orientalis and other trees and shrubs. Heavily grazed, much bare soil with many outcropping boulders bordering stream. Aspect: North-northeast. Slope: 1:1. Soil: A stony, gritty clay with a thin humic layer principally around trees and boulders where grazing/trampling pressure was reduced. C. coum abundant throughout site, especially at the base of boulders and trees.


Along a forest road near Artvin.
Altitude: 1300m. Upper part of site dominated by sparse Picea orientalis; lower part covered by mixed Fagus/Quercus woodland sloping to a stream fringed with Alnus. Aspect: South. Slope: 1:2. Soil: A red gritty clay with a thin red-brown humic layer, lying over hard acid rocks. Deep leaf litter was present in both parts of site.


Between Ortacalar and Konakli.
Altitude: 70m. Shaded bank on both sides of the road below hazel grove. Lower part of site extensively grazed by sheep. Aspect: Southwest. Slope: Variable. Soil: Stony clay.


Between Ardesen and Pazar.
Altitude: 15m. Heavily grazed Alnus woodland on the lowest slopes above the road, below small arable patches. Aspect: North-northeast. Slope: 1:2. Soil: Silty clay, very stony, over acid rocks.
Sparse population of C. coum which would receive some salt spray from the sea in winter storms.


To the north of the Zigana Pass.
Altitude: 1500m. Boulder strewn open grassland heavily grazed by sheep. Aspect: West-southwest. Slope: 1:2. Soil: A thick layer of moor type humus over a stony clay. Most tubers of C. parviflorum lying at the junction of the two. Snow still lay around and the surface soil was saturated with melt water unable to drain downwards as the lower soil layers were still frozen.
A classic C. parviflorum habitat with plants widely scattered, usually amongst short grass and bryophytes.


Between Trabzon and the Zigana Pass, near Hamsikoy.
Altitude: 1350m. Picea orientalis woodland. Aspect: West. Slope: 1:1. Soil: A stony, gritty clay with a humus layer above and a covering of leaf and needle litter, occurring patchily between boulders.
C. coum abundant in clearings. Snow was still lying and had only recently melted in clear areas. All C. coum had been flattened by the snow.


Between Trabzon and the Zigana Pass near Hamsikoy.
Altitude: 1070m. C. coum growing on steep stony banks and in Picea orientalis woodland.